Protecting the environment and combating climate change are two of the most pressing challenges facing humankind. As energy prices soar, network operators
are increasingly scrutinizing their environmental and social responsibilities and, of course, their energy bills. Where the telecommunications industry is concerned, technological improvements have kept energy usage very low, and there are a number of promising ways in which the ICT industry can further reduce its CO2 emissions.

This paper presents a multi-faceted approach to achieving energy-efficient, sustainable mobile communications through network optimization, site optimization, and alternative energy sources. A three-step process is outlined: equipment sites must be reduced to as few a number as possible; the energy efficiency of individual products, as well as that of entire sites, must be optimized; and, there must be ongoing research and development of renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind and biofuels.