The use of digital multimedia for profit is driving the development of a robust and indelible method of protecting the intellectual property rights of content creators. The fields of digital watermarking and steganography have thus exploded over the last few years, being regarded as potentially viable techniques for addressing this need.


This paper consists of two parts: the first half is an overview of the current state of digital watermarking, including a description of the steganographic channel model, as well as a mechanism for mapping the essentially one-dimensional streaming of the conventional communication model to higher dimensions. The second half describes the construction of arrays suitable for embedding as watermarks, and explains the characteristics of a good watermark, contrasting them with the features of spread-spectrum communications.