After more than one hundred years of energy transportation with minimal technological variation, electricity distribution networks have recently seen a dramatic transformation. The energy sector has evolved to include renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. We have new challenges such as the bidirectional flow of energy, intermittence in generation from renewable sources, distribution of electrical power, and noise emission on power lines, resulting in potential network stability issues.

To guarantee continuous and quality service to end customers, energy distribution companies are incorporating smart meters to allow for real-time network diagnostics and immediate fault detection. This paper illustrates smart meter fundamentals and advancements in field diagnostics.