Rapid increases in product performance and features along with
demands for longer operating life have driven designers of battery
based electronics to consider significant changes in product
design. These include using lower voltage components, turning off
unused subsystems, managing applications software and developing
“smarter” batteries and battery management. Designers of new
battery systems need knowledge of many different, diverse and, in
many cases, new fields. These fields range from battery chemistry
and knowledge of how the battery operates; to system engineering
and knowledge of how the various components interact; to product
design and knowledge of how the user operates a particular
device.