Many system applications require the measurement of a physical or electrical condition, or the presence or absence of a known physical, electrical, or chemical quantity. Analog sensors are typically used to indicate the magnitude or change in the environmental condition, by reacting to the condition and generating a change in an electrical property as a result.

There are sensors that respond to such phenomena by producing the following electrical properties: voltage, current, resistance, capacitance, and charge. These electrical properties are conditioned by an analog circuit before being converted to a digital circuit. In this way, the environmental condition can be ‘measured’ and the system can make decisions based on the result.

This guide provides overviews of typical phenomena and corresponding sensors, measurement methods, related applications, solutions, and development tools.