Many seemingly disparate protocols perform similar types of operations. The skilled hacker can take inspiration from the fact that a feature within a particular protocol is vulnerable to a given kind of attack, and make an educated guess that an attack on a similar feature within a completely unrelated protocol might have a good chance of success.

This paper discusses the Mu-4000 Security Analyzer, which has a mutation engine designed to find these flaws regardless of setting. The Mu-4000 sees all the familiar features in different protocols as different instances of the same underlying feature and attacks them similarly.