Power optimization and power control are important and challenging issues for server computer systems. A system can be represented as a set of components whose cooperative interaction produces useful work. These components may be heterogeneous in nature and may vary in the power consumption and power control mechanisms. Server system components may coordinate power control actions using embedded controllers or special hardware. Generally, it is efficient to host monitoring and control functions to an out-of-band (OOB) controller. This avoids any side effects due to unavailability of the in-band controller or loading conditions that may themselves change the system properties. Learn more in this technical article.