The signal channels that link high speed processors to memory and various other peripherals, are limited by the inherent characteristics of the printed circuit board. These are what ultimately connect information to the outside world. One limiting factor is the effect of non-uniformity of the glass fiber distribution in the printed circuit substrate material, also known as fiber weave effect (FWE). FWE introduces signal skew and timing errors which place an upper limit on bit rate and trace length.

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