The main goals of quality management in all industries are customer satisfaction, radical reduction of defect rates, and reduction of quality costs. Controlled technological processes are the most important way to reach this goal. The principles on which these processes are founded are standard in mechanical engineering and have met with great success.


Equivalent processes in electronics production, however, are very different from those of mechanical engineering; they are difficult and affected by a myriad of factors. When processes are not controlled, defect rates can increase — How does one approach this problem? A 100% test of PCBs must be carried out after the manufacturing process. But what must one know about quality costs? This paper responds to this question with a discussion about powerful, easy-to-use quality cost models that compare costs both with and without a test after a technological (manufacturing) process.