As signals pass through A/D and D/A converters, the signal undergoes changes that can affect its frequency content. This paper will outline fundamental modeling techniques that can be used to identify these changes.

After defining a few basic terms, the concepts of sampling and aliasing are introduced. Using a block diagram for reference, corresponding sections explain anti-aliasing filters, A/D conversion, digital filtering, D/A conversion, compensation filters, and anti-imaging filters. The following section brings these concepts together. The last sections detail some of the assumptions made in the use of the models.