Mobile handheld devices like laptops, PDAs and cellular phones are power and frequency limited. These constraints ultimately limit the data rates that can be achieved. An ad hoc infrastructure can address these concerns as well by offering an increase in-system robustness and capacity in a way similar to how the wired Internet provides users with a level of capacity that is much higher than achieved on the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The end result is a self-forming, self-healing wireless network that is able to deliver high bandwidth while using lower cost radios and antennas with markedly lower power requirements.