In applications such as industrial process control, power supply regulation, and point-to-point communications between computers, serial communication buses transmit data over various types of physical networks, such as RS-232, RS-485, and the Controller Area Network (CAN). Each of the interconnected systems usually has its own power supply, and the systems are often separated by long distances, so galvanic isolation is typically required to break up ground loops, protect the system from high-voltage transients, and reduce signal distortion, as well as for physical safety.

Reproduced with the permission of Analog Devices, Inc.