To meet the needs of tomorrow’s applications, innovation in energy efficiency and low power is essential. From power in versus power out; calculating energy needed to quickly move one bit of information from one place to another; or determining the energy to convert analog signals to digital information, there are many ways to measure energy efficiency. Achieving it across these areas must be a consideration in all aspects of IC design, from process technologies to silicon and circuits, packaging, manufacturing and software. This white paper outlines trends driving energy efficiency and low power, and considerations for transforming emerging areas like cloud computing, healthcare, security, transportation and more.