Previously, scaling was enabled solely though changes in the physical domain, whether through decreasing the wavelength of light, increasing the numerical aperture, or producing chemically amplified resists. Starting at 180 nm software has become a critical driver of scaling. The discipline of Computational Lithography (CL) combines software architecture and high performance computing, with modeling of the scanner, resist and etch process, into a system that can correct for the deficiencies of the physical domain by correcting the shapes on the mask.

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