Industrial and medical design continually push to improve product accuracy and speed. The analog integrated circuit industry has generally kept up with speed requirements, but it is falling behind on accuracy demands. There is a march toward 1 ppm accurate systems, especially now that 1 ppm linear ADCs are becoming common.

This article presents op amp accuracy limitations and how to choose the few op amps that have a chance of 1 ppm accuracy. It will also discuss a few application improvements to existing op amp limitations.