The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been focused on closing the gap between humans and computers by attempting to equip machines with the ability to behave intelligently. This allows us to create intelligent systems, which are devices and components that solve some practical problems that would traditionally require a human to perform. Examples of such intelligent systems in operation today include mobile devices that can translate and interpret foreign languages, software that can play chess like a grand master, and machines that can automatically analyze medical images such as CAT scans to discover tumors or bone fractures.