The main source of heat in electronic equipment is their semiconductor chips, and the temperature sensitivities of these chips presents a challenge in designing cooling mechanisms. Overheating causes the chips to prematurely fail—and failure of only one chip can disable the entire equipment, the higher the chip temperature, the earlier and more certain the failure. As functionality has increased, the associated heat dissipation has escalated to the extent that it is recognized as a potential limitation on the pace of electronics development. Appropriate cooling strategies are needed to prevent overheating and failure of critical components.