Analog-to-digital converters (ADC) routinely convert analog signals such as temperature, pressure, sound, or images to a precise digital representation. Microcontrollers and microprocessors store, massage, and transmit this digital information throughout a system. There are also times when precision digital-to-analog converters (DAC) convert the digital representation of these real-world events back into the analog domain. Three of the DAC topologies that achieve this feat are the R-2R MDAC, R-2R back- DAC, and the string DAC. These three topologies service applications such as automatic test equipment, instrumentation, portable equipment, and digitally controlled calibration.