ew engineers can remain purely hardware or software designers. Meeting time-to-market and power-performance-area product requirements means that embedded hardware engineers must have a basic understanding of software design and vice versa. This class presents specific trade-off techniques to equip engineers with a larger “systems” view of electronics. This class covers techniques to compare power-performance-area trade-offs issues between hardware and software implementations of specific interface designs. Related topics include analog-digital and chip-package-board issues, as well as IP metrics and software reuse.