This class will start with a description of the fundamental operation of A/D and D/A converters, and sources of errors with their impact on the results of conversion. After that we examine different types of noise in semiconductor components and how they impacted reference voltage ICs output. We will show results of preliminary measurements of the reference voltage noise and compare it to the overall noise of the signal chain. The internal structure of a A/D converter will be shown with specific requirements for driving the reference input pin. Then we will analyze the stability of the OpAmp driving a large capacitive load as it applies to the output buffer of the reference voltage IC. This will lead us to understand how parasitic elements of external filter components will help.