Radio Network Evolution towards LTE-Advanced and Beyond
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This paper covers two major directions of radio network evolution. Firstly, measures to increase network capacity and network performance are discussed in detail: spectral efficiency enhancements, network densification, and extended use of spectrum. Secondly, the article introduces new radio network architectures fostering traffic offloading towards additional network layers, WLAN, or towards direct user-to-user transmission. A simple model allows forecasting for the need to deploy LTE small cells and of traffic offloading into WLAN access points at the latest from 2020 onwards.