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Just as analog filters are designed using the Laplace transform, recursive digital filters are developed with a parallel technique called the z-transform. The overall strategy of these two transforms is the same: probe the impulse response with sinusoids and exponentials to find the system's poles and zeros. The Laplace transform deals with differential equations, the s-domain, and the s-plane. Correspondingly, the z-transform deals with difference equations, the z-domain, and the z-plane. However, the two techniques are not a mirror image of each other; the s-plane is arranged in a rectangular coordinate system, while the z-plane uses a polar format. Recursive digital filters are often designed by starting with one of the classic analog filters, such as the Butterworth, Chebyshev, or elliptic. A series of mathematical conversions are then used to obtain the desired digital filter. The z-transform provides the framework for this mathematics. The Chebyshev filter design program uses this approach, and is discussed in detail in this chapter.
The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing, ©1997-1998 by Steven W. Smith. For more information visit the book's website at: www.DSPguide.com